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Analysing Principal-Agent Relationships in Liberia in the course of the Ebola Disaster

It was not lengthy after 2020 started that residents world-wide realized it will be marked by COVID-19. Following the declaration of a Public Well being Emergency of Worldwide Concern (PHEIC) on January thirtieth, 2020 by the World Well being Group (WHO), the COVID-19 outbreak  was additional declared a pandemic on March eleventh, 2020, 12 days earlier than the UK’s (UK) Prime Minister Boris Johnson put the nation underneath a lockdown. As lockdown progressed, individuals tried to return to phrases with the realities of the state of affairs. A worrying development, although, got here to gentle within the weeks that adopted the UK’s lockdown: individuals from sure UK communities, particularly from BAME (Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic) communities, appeared to be extra liable to contracting and dying from COVID-19. Regardless of these communities making up 14 % of the inhabitants, 35 % of 2000 intensive-care unit beds have been occupied by individuals from BAME communities.[1]

This analysis doesn’t give attention to this phenomenon, nonetheless. I state it right here to explain how I selected to embark on the analysis journey of this paper. The insights as regards to the BAME communities and COVID-19 level to a bigger set of questions arising within the present PHEIC. How do marginalized communities and the federal government work together in such a state of affairs and what are the federal government’s duties?

I selected to take my evaluation to the worldwide stage and take a look at the newest and most comparable expertise of a PHEIC: the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, occurring from 2013 to 2016. What I discovered was that certainly the relationships between residents from part of the world marginalized economically, socially and politically within the worldwide neighborhood; the political leaders of West Africa; and worldwide actors supplied bountiful fodder for evaluation.

I outlined my universe of instances because the three most-affected nations in West Africa, particularly Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia and commenced to check them in-depth. Certainly, some analysis exists which has already begun to know the interactions of those three forms of actors in the course of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Analysis specializing in the connection between West African residents and their governments has analysed how perceptions of presidency capability carried out throughout Ebola. For instance, Nuriddin et al. (2018) level to the constructive correlation between the capability of governmental well being care companies in the course of the 2015 Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone and neighborhood belief. Moreover, a better physique of literature has begun analysing perceptions of West Africans, notably residents, in the course of the Ebola disaster. For instance, the work of Ali et al. (2015) argues that the Western world’s characterization of Ebola-ridden nations was strongly contaminated with racist tropes and served to stigmatize West Africans.[2]  In a very telling passage, Ali et al. write:

In any such colonialist discourse, “different” components of the world are depicted as harmful, notably these with “heat climates” from the place “new and rising ailments” are seen to emanate within the twenty-first century.[3]

Nevertheless, though analysis has begun analysing the roles of principals and brokers throughout a PHEIC in a growing context, the analysis on West Africa and its intra- and inter-state relations throughout Ebola stays basically sparse, maybe marred by the dearth of information on this area. That’s the reason I formulate my three analysis questions as comply with:

First Analysis Query: Did the Liberian public’s belief of their President and Parliament (Y variable) lower or enhance as new instances of Ebola (X variable) sprung up within the 2011 to 2018 interval?[4]

Second Analysis Query: How did the Liberian authorities handle its residents and in the course of the 2014 to 2016 Ebola disaster?

Third Analysis Query: How did the worldwide neighborhood view Liberian leaders and residents in the course of the Ebola disaster?

I select to reply these questions as a result of they assist us perceive the construction of principal-agent dynamics as illustrated in Determine 1. The information I selected to analyse was primarily chosen primarily based on availability. For the reason that notion of the Liberian authorities by the Liberian residents is quantifiable, I function with that knowledge. The opposite relationships can’t be supported by quantifiable knowledge; thus I select to take a look at qualitative knowledge. In Determine 1, the general image of this analysis is introduced. I intention to discover relationships A, B, C, and F with previous literature supporting data about relationships B, C and F. Far more work stays to be carried out to know the workings of every relationship circulate, particularly E.

Determine 1

Making use of regression evaluation and discourse evaluation to quantitative and qualitative knowledge, particularly Afrobarometer survey knowledge from three survey rounds spanning years from 2011 to 2018 and roughly 40 pages of speeches from Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Physician Margaret Chan, Physician Joanne Liu, Barack Obama, and David Nabarro, I discover that:

First Argument: There’s a clear destructive correlation between Liberian public belief of their President and Parliament and the variety of new Ebola instances rising. Particularly, for each one Ebola case, the proportion of the Liberian public trusting their President “So much” decreases by 0.0039 individuals whereas the proportion trusting their Parliament “So much” decreases by 0.0029 individuals.

Second Argument: The Liberian state sought to justify its actions vis-à-vis the Liberian public as public belief was reducing whereas the worldwide neighborhood painted Liberia as incapable of controlling Ebola.

Third Argument: Worldwide actors in the end perpetuated a picture of the Liberian state as with out company, authority, or sovereignty and thus in want of saving by Western-influenced worldwide actors. Moreover, Liberian residents have been constructed as “noble savages” by these similar worldwide actors.

Earlier than presenting the literature related to this subject, the analysis design, my findings and additional discussions and conclusion, I briefly present background data of the context of Liberia, Ebola and the worldwide actors concerned.

Current-day Liberia was based in 1822 as a colony of the US of America. Liberia was based by the American Colonization Society which was shaped in the US (US) in 1816 with the aim of colonizing a spot for free-born Black Individuals and former slaves to reside. On July 26, 1847, Liberia declared its independence from the US, starting a protracted historical past of political and financial domination by its American colonizers, regardless of having been inhabited by differing ethnic teams for a minimum of a millennium. The Americo-Liberians, constituting solely two % of the inhabitants, made up practically 100% of voters, and voted in a single get together, the True Whig Social gathering, from the 1860s to the Nineteen Sixties. On April 12, 1980, Grasp Sergeant Samuel Okay. Doe overthrew the President, William Tolbert, and instituted a army dictatorship which lasted till 1989 when a number of completely different factions vied for the nation’s management after the lack of US assist. After the invasion of Liberia by Americo-Liberian Charles Taylor and his Nationwide Patriotic Entrance in 1989 and the 1990 assassination of Doe, a seven-year-long civil conflict ensued which ended with a peace settlement and the 1997 election win by Taylor. Nevertheless, by 2001, two insurgent teams started warring with Taylor’s authorities forces and a brand new, three-year-long civil conflict started. The conflict ended at a peace summit in Ghana in 2002, when the group Ladies of Liberia, Mass Motion for Peace salvaged talks that had failed between Taylor and the 2 insurgent teams. In 2005, one of many leaders of WLMAP, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf started what can be a 12-year lengthy tenure as Liberia’s President and Africa’s first feminine head of state. Sirleaf led the nation via the Ebola disaster which started in Liberia in Foya on March 30, 2014. With the height of the outbreak occurring in August and September 2014 and 42 days of no-transmission lastly having handed in June 2016, Ebola had left Liberia having killed roughly 4810 individuals. The Ebola outbreak in Liberia warranted a wide-ranging world response, together with main efforts by the United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER), the WHO, Médecins sans Frontières, and particular person governments similar to Cuba and Germany.

I. Literature Evaluate

Principal-Agent Idea

Impressed by the work of Kamradt-Scott (2016) which judges the WHO’s actions in the course of the Ebola outbreak contemplating its place as an agent of principal nation states, this work rests on Principal-Agent Idea, as utilized to intra- and inter-state relations. Hawkins et al. (2006) present a definition of Principal-Agent Idea from which I revenue: “The relations between a principal and an agent are at all times ruled by a contract […] To be a principal, an actor should have the ability to each grant authority and rescind it”.[5] The set-up of Principal-Agent Idea, during which one actor, the principal, authorizes (via a contract) one other actor, an agent, to signify their greatest pursuits or act on their behalf, lends itself nicely to analysing the relations between residents and people they elected to authorities and between states and worldwide actors. It’s because in a principal-agent setup a necessary delegation of pursuits exists which may doubtlessly go incorrect. I don’t right here analyse what went incorrect nor why, not to mention body such an evaluation referring to the everyday data asymmetries ensuing from the Principal-Agent drawback (ethical hazard and adversarial choice), opting as a substitute to quantify and visualize that relationship as embodied between Liberian residents and their politicians at a sure time limit, and the way worldwide brokers could view these Liberian principals (the residents).

Public Belief

When talking of public belief, students most frequently discuss with it within the framework of the public belief doctrine which refers to the truth that sure pure and cultural items are protected, by the federal government, for public use.[6]

Relatedly, there exists additionally the idea of the general public belief, which is a company managing sources for not-for-profits or different organizations serving residents in want.[7]

Nevertheless, the idea of belief analysed right here is completely different. It’s associated to the belief which the Liberian citizenry has in its democratic establishments. Such an idea will be traced again to the fourth century BCE in Thucydides’ account of the Mytilenean Debate. In a current development, students of political science have labored to learn from the contributions of classical works in defining belief. Thus, Mara (2001) writes that Thucydides’ account factors to the necessity for constructing belief amongst the residents in the direction of rulers exactly to be able to construct solidarity in overcoming moments of weak spot in buying the widespread good.

The pursuit of defining public belief is additional sophisticated by the problem of causality. Specifically, pre-existing or present perceptions could taint the extent to which authorities efficiency impacts residents’ belief. Van de Waale and Bouckaert (2011) write on this concern and conclude that, “precise efficiency will not be equal to perceived efficiency”.[8] This is a vital methodological consideration however implementing its findings into analysis design is past the breadth of this examine.

Thus, I choose to give attention to a extra slim facet of public belief. Maybe essentially the most well-known evaluation of belief in social science has been Robert D. Putnam’s Idea of Social Capital. Putnam’s thesis is that prime ranges of social belief (as a social worth) on the combination stage, mixed with particular norms and plentiful networks, results in a “excessive stage of political integration”.[9] Though flawed by logical circularity (social capital is concurrently a trigger and an impact), Putnam’s enter is worth it for flagging the connection between public belief and its connections and potential impacts on political and democratic success.

For the needs of this analysis, I go for a definition supplied by Gambetta (1998):

Belief […] is a selected stage of the subjective likelihood with which an agent assesses that one other agent or group of brokers will carry out a selected motion, each earlier than he can monitor such motion (or independently of his capability ever to have the ability to monitor it) and in a context during which it impacts his personal motion.[10]

This succinct definition captures what I think about public belief to be on the person foundation. I undertake this definition and pool it to the mixture, showcasing what the Liberian public’s belief is as a relationship vis-à-vis the Liberian authorities.

Public Belief in Liberia

Theoretically, the idea of public belief in literature specializing in Liberia, and even Western Africa for that matter, remained comparatively scant till the mid to late 2000s, after warring had ceased in 2003-2004. Thus, a lot of the literature not specializing in the connection between public belief and Ebola focuses on the battle to (re-)construct public belief after the Liberian civil wars. The matters that are most frequently addressed are safety sector reforms, corruption and state funds.

Sherif and Maina (2013) critically assess the federal government’s provision of decentralised safety and justice companies via the creation of regional hubs. The writer argues that the hub mannequin “bears promise”, however that it “hinges on the power of the state to […] regain the belief of its residents”.[11]

When critically assessing the drawdown of UNMIL, Podder (2013) argues that together with native actors in safety sector reform is essential not solely to the success of the reforms however for public satisfaction total. Podder writes that, “efforts stay disengaged with the general public notion […] This oversight needs to be rectified to attenuate destructive impacts of safety transition […]”[12]

While highlighting the significance of public belief in making certain state stability and consolidation, Karim (2017) affords two new standards for “assessing safety sector reforms’ impact on confidence within the safety sector […]”[13] Her standards of restraint and inclusiveness extra particularly translate into insurance policies which embrace females within the safety sector.

Beekman, Bulte and Nillesen (2014) attempt to measure the willingness to contribute to public items as perceived corruption will increase. They conclude that, “corrupt management attenuates […] funding incentives”.[14]

Lastly, Gujadhur (2011) analyses the teachings learnt in Liberia in efforts to implement financial governance reforms whereas additionally constructing public belief within the 2006 to 2011 interval. He takes Liberia to be successful story on this respect, arguing that regardless of the colossal monetary constraints confronted by the Sirleaf administration because of the civil wars, a steadiness between worldwide and native pursuits was struck to the good thing about the nation.

Public Belief and Ebola

Two broad classes, together with consideration paid to native responses and inclusion in wider remedy programmes and the causal relationship between belief, worry, and (non-)compliance, govern the literature on public belief and Ebola.

A lot of the literature typically focuses on needed reforms for future PHEICs. For instance, Kruk et al. (2015) level to the connection between resilient health-care methods and the federal government’s capability to comprise worry when emergencies strike. Extra particularly, resilient well being care methods, declare the authors, are more proficient at containing fearful reactions of the general public.

Bemah et al. (2019), level to the specificities of coaching programmes and analyse that are extra productive in correctly coaching native employees in administering secure and high quality companies (SQSs) in Ebola remedy models (ETUs).  They argue that native well being care employees should obtain refresher coaching to be able to enhance emergency preparedness.

Nevertheless, points of the Liberian response have been praised. When finding out the native hospitals’ state of affairs reviews, Fallah, Dahn and Nyenswah (2016) argue that community-based initiatives (CBIs) have been crucial in slicing the transmission chain of Ebola, a feat carried out sooner than its two neighbours Sierra Leone and Guinea, each of which have a better per capita GDP than Liberia.

The analysis of Barker et al. (2020) takes Fallah, Dahn and Nyenswah’s analysis a step additional. Barker et al. argue that though it could be clear that local people empowerment in public well being emergency responses is essential, it’s nonetheless not clear which mode of facilitation of community-centred approaches works. Thus, the researchers take a look at which types of neighborhood engagement (CE) had a significant impression and located that approaches which deal with native communities as lively brokers within the response somewhat than as passive receivers of well being companies supplied the best success charge. Thus, insurance policies similar to initiating community-based surveillance groups elevated belief in well being authorities” which “facilitated well being system response efforts” all “resulting in a fortuitous cycle”.[15]

The 2020 paper by Blair, Morse, Tsai examined the effectiveness of the Liberian authorities’s door-to-door canvassing marketing campaign from 2014 to 2015 and located that it was simpler when native intermediaries carried out it as they have been then topic to “monitoring and sanctioning”, thus making them appear “extra accountable and credible”.[16]

Vinck et al. (2018) take a look at the impact of low belief in authorities on Ebola beliefs and subsequent practises. They discover that “low institutional belief [is] related to a decreased probability of adopting preventive behaviours”, while acknowledging that over 1 / 4 of their respondents didn’t imagine the outbreak was actual.[17]

Blair, Morse and Tsai (2016) have been monumental within the discipline of connecting public belief to governmental responses in public well being emergencies. They take a look at if a correlation exists between belief in authorities and compliance with Ebola-control measures. They discovered that even when respondents have been absolutely conscious of how Ebola is transmitted and what must be carried out to decrease the danger of transmission, their indication of low belief in authorities nonetheless pushed them to not adjust to management measures. While different papers have showcased the significance of belief as a variable, this paper strongly argues for belief as a central determinant in anti-transmission practises.

Inside this class, there’s additionally a sub-category of micro literature specializing in results after the Ebola pandemic in Liberia.

The work of Morse et al. (2016) analyses the impression that demand-side components similar to belief and destructive well being care experiences in the course of the Ebola outbreak have on demand for well being care after the pandemic. They discover that mistrust of authorities and a destructive Ebola-related expertise decreases health-care utilisation while government-organised neighborhood outreach applications enhance it.

Elston et al. (2016) equally assess the impression on well being care authorities after the pandemic. They argue that the connection between worry, belief and use of social companies ran in a round trend, i.e. worry of Ebola and well being care staff brought on a lower in belief of the general public well being care system and thus a lower in use of it which in flip brought on a better worry of Ebola. The authors argue that this brought on an additional lower in “neighborhood cohesion”.[18]

Whereas recognizing the impact that the general public’s mistrust of the federal government has had on the success of Ebola containment, Woskie and Fallah (2019) intention to evaluate the impact of mistrust of the federal government by the general public on the supply of common healthcare protection (UHC) additionally post-pandemic. They observe {that a} mistrust of authorities continues post-pandemic and hampers efforts to institutionalize UHC.

Lastly, within the ground-breaking ebook Politics of Worry (2017), former Médecins sans Frontières employees member Mit Philips recounts classes discovered in the course of the pandemic, and notes that tense “interpersonal relationships between the healthcare authorities, healthcare staff, and the final inhabitants” brought on a discount in demand for well being care.[19]

The Worldwide Group and its Ebola Response

The analysis of Abramowitz et al. (2017) showcases that native communities can quickly reverse the sample of thought and motion that they harbour vis-à-vis ailments similar to Ebola, particularly in a local weather of accelerating mortality charges. The authors state that, “International public well being response […] ought to draw upon […] our most important discovering […] Ebola behaviour change messages have been solely adopted and maintained after they have been seen as “practical” or “sensible”  in each day life”.[20] It’s notable that the authors refer instantly to the worldwide response effort, with out providing options for state-centred approaches. That is doubtlessly at odds with analysis similar to that from Kucharski and Piot (2014) who argue forcibly for the necessity for a world response: “The dimensions of the present outbreak means a world response is required”.[21] They state that “the worldwide neighborhood should commit the sources required to manage the outbreak”, similar to “experience and tools, […] monetary assist, […] skilled healthcare staff[,] […] further protecting clothes and isolation models”, amongst others.[22]

Woldemariam and di Giacomo (2016) argue towards a number of measures posed by the worldwide neighborhood to attempt to alleviate the Ebola disaster in Western Africa. They argue, for instance, that “campaigns to teach and lift funds for Ebola and Africa […] would have proved simpler if Africa had been represented in its many aspects […] somewhat than as a perpetual single sufferer”.[23]

Following this pressure of thought, authors have argued that the Liberian state was seen as incapable of controlling the virus primarily as a result of it was an African state. This, they argue, is evidenced by the scientifically unjustified actions on the a part of states and worldwide organizations. For instance, Tejpar and Hoffman (2017) argue that the journey restrictions instituted by Canada, alongside a number of different nations, have been unlawful as they didn’t abide by the WHO’s Worldwide Well being Rules (IHR).

Roemer-Mahler and Rushton (2016) spend appreciable area criticizing the “securitization” of Ebola.[24]  The authors argue that the worldwide neighborhood solely noticed Ebola as a safety concern and never one regarding public well being. Moreover, it was not till the well being of Western nations was endangered that world leaders amplified their response. Furman (2017), furthermore, brings consideration to the truth that two U.S. healthcare staff and a Spanish priest have been the primary to obtain an experimental Ebola remedy. Furthermore, Furman criticizes that an ethics panel which the WHO convened had no Africans current in it.

Southall, DeYoung, and Harris (2017) argue that due to Liberians’ distrust in authorities each on the nationwide and worldwide stage and “the dearth of cultural competency”, native efforts to successfully reply to Liberia have been ignored and worldwide cooperation with these efforts was absent.[25]

There’s a wealthy literature discussing and criticizing the worldwide response to Ebola and, extra typically, the outlook this neighborhood has on Ebola and the Africans concerned in it.

Monson (2017) argues that mainstream information and social media in the US (US) throughout 2014 engaged in an “othering course of” during which it “reproduced and perpetuated the Ebola-is-African, Ebola-is-all-over-Africa, and Africa-is-a-country narratives”.[26]

Ali et al. (2016) argue that the “colonial legacy” of Westerners “fan[s] the flames of worry” because it produces a “social amplification of danger”. The colonial legacy has this position, the authors argue, because it prompts a imaginative and prescient of “Africa as a web site of primitivism and disaster” and encourages “colonial discourses of backwardness, exoticism and savagery”.[27]

Lastly, Kingsbury’s (2015) work engages immediately with media representations of Western efforts to curb Ebola in Liberia. She argues that in the end the Western view “serves primarily to strengthen paternal relationships […] and a societal notion that ‘we’ are the saviours”.[28] Trckova (2015), furthermore, argues that the illustration in US newspapers of Ebola’s victims painted them as “unvoiced” and “agentless”, or as “fail[ing] to signify contaminated extraordinary Africans as sovereign brokers”.[29]

Positioning this Analysis

This analysis makes an attempt to enter the conversations outlined above by setting up an image of principal-agent relations which goals to know the position of those three actors of their rights and tasks to one another but additionally their perceptions of Self and the Different by additional partaking with themes of public belief and Western supremacy. This snapshot is missing and represents the first and important hole within the literature. Much less typically, this analysis goals to contribute to the present literature by quantifying and visualizing the connection of public belief in Liberia throughout a PHEIC, connecting public belief in its authorities to the visions of worldwide brokers, and critically analysing the speech merchandise of those worldwide brokers.

II. Knowledge and Methodology

Case examine

Firstly, it’s crucial to delineate what precisely a case examine is. I function with Gerring’s (2006) definition:

Case connotes a spatially delineated phenomenon (a unit) noticed […] over some time period. It contains the kind of phenomenon that an inference makes an attempt to clarify.[30]

Thus, as Gerring factors out, a case examine consists of a unit which the analysis research in depth to achieve observations in regards to the phenomenon itself, its traits and so forth.

When finding out Ebola in Africa throughout its most up-to-date outbreak (from 2014 to 2016), the universe of instances from which to decide on embrace Nigeria, Mali, and Senegal, alongside the worst-affected nations in West Africa, together with Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

The method of choosing one case to check thought-about the varied and congruent components of the nations, similar to demographic make-up, financial power, and the impact Ebola had on the nation. In selecting a case greatest fitted to reply the analysis questions and which might not be hindered by the quite a few completely different variables amongst the universe of instances, Liberia was chosen as a paradigmatic case. A paradigmatic case is “an exemplar”, a case emblematic of an occasion however one which doesn’t essentially share typical traits with different comparable instances.[31]

This analysis doesn’t intention to supply causal claims with the info analysed. To reply the analysis questions, a ‘Blended strategies’ method, i.e. one which “accumulate[s] and analyse[s] each quantitative and qualitative knowledge throughout the similar examine” is adopted because the analysis questions encourage this method.[32] The quantitative knowledge and evaluation is employed to acquire a transparent and dependable visualization of the connection between Ebola instances in Liberia and public belief, whereas the qualitative knowledge and evaluation was employed to find the photographs of fellow worldwide actors that every respective actor underneath evaluation created. The solutions might be thought-about adequate as soon as the evaluation has come out from the info exploration with a transparent destructive or constructive correlation between the 2 variables within the first analysis query, and a wealthy set of themes (a minimum of 5) to reply the final two analysis questions.

Knowledge

The quantitative knowledge is from Afrobarometer’s on-line database of survey rounds and from the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention (CDC). I take a look at three survey rounds (2011-2013, 2014-2015, and 2016-2018) from Afrobarometer to get as strong an image as attainable, combining it with the variety of new instances rising in Liberia from 2014 to 2016. I select two particular survey questions and plot the share of individuals responding (the typical variety of respondents being 1199) with a belief stage of “So much” to those three questions:

Survey Query 1: How a lot do you belief every of the next, or haven’t you heard sufficient about them to say: The President?

Survey Query 2: How a lot do you belief every of the next, or haven’t you heard sufficient about them to say: Parliament?

I select the President and Parliament as a result of these have been the 2 strongest and lively governmental respondents in Liberia’s Ebola expertise. Survey questions do current the potential for biased solutions, maybe by pushing the respondents to reply in a sure method. Nevertheless, of the info out there, I choose this knowledge to be the closest approximation of subjective attitudes of belief in Liberia. Furthermore, the questions haven’t been acknowledged in a suggestive method.

The qualitative knowledge consists of publicly-available speeches by Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (President of Liberia from 2006 to 2018), Physician Margaret Chan (Director-Basic of the WHO from 2006 to 2017), Physician Joanne Liu (Worldwide President of MSF from 2013 to 2019), Barack Obama (President of the US from 2009 to 2017), and David Nabarro (Particular Envoy of the UN Secretary Basic on Ebola from 2014 to 2015). This readily-available knowledge signifies the utterances relating to the Ebola disaster in Liberia of the main related political figures of the time. I apply discourse evaluation to roughly 40 pages of textual content, equalling round 13,400 phrases.

Quantitative Evaluation

On this analysis, I exploit quantitative knowledge and evaluation as a degree of departure for a extra intriguing, qualitative evaluation. The quantitative evaluation serves to know the “social cognition”, or the “public thoughts”.[33] Extra particularly, the quantitative evaluation is extra so directed in the direction of attaining perception, which is “the product of a great case examine”.[34] Lastly, the survey knowledge is used to seize the subjective nature of perceptions of belief, following Gambetta’s definition.

I first systematized the info in Excel to organize it for import into RStudio by aligning the evolution of the variety of new instances and the survey responses to the identical time-frame.

I then imported the info into RStudio, after which I coded for a regression mannequin and visualized this mannequin by making a LOESS regression picture to extra flexibly point out the connection between the variety of new Ebola instances in Liberia and the variety of respondents trusting the respective governmental establishment “So much”.

Qualitative Evaluation

Foucault states that energy is claimed via discourse, stating, “Discourse […] is the factor for which there’s battle, discourse is the ability which is to be seized”.[35] With this in thoughts, an evaluation of the discourse round Ebola by the world’s leaders can doubtlessly lay naked relations of energy within the setting studied.

I make use of van Dijk’s crucial discourse evaluation because it lends itself most formidably to the character of my analysis questions. Assuming, within the essence of Foucault and van Dijk, that discourse is the terrain for power-making and power-taking, van Dijk advises discourse analysts to method the textual content with the next query in thoughts: [What is] the position of discourse within the (re)manufacturing and problem of dominance?[36] Thus, I analyse the official speeches of world leaders to have interaction extra immediately with power-making via discourse, and, fairly particularly, with the potential transgressions towards democratic values. As van Dijk places it:

Essential discourse evaluation is particularly involved in energy abuse, that’s, in breaches of legal guidelines, guidelines and ideas of democracy, equality and justice by those that wield energy.[37]

I carried out my discourse evaluation in ATLAS.ti, a software program which allowed me to code for the principle themes arising out of the texts. Looking for themes meant critically assessing, in an inductive trend, speeches for tactics during which actors labored to perpetuate or vivify their positions of energy.

Moral Concerns

This undertaking didn’t require moral approval, but it surely requires moral consideration. I take into account Mama’s (2007) proclamation that, “For Africans, moral scholarship is socially accountable scholarship that helps freedom […]”[38] My intention is to concentrate on my positionality as a white, middle-class girl who has by no means visited the nation she is finding out. I intention to do extra good than hurt, which is without doubt one of the causes I selected crucial discourse evaluation. I try to take the perspective of these most deprived.

III. Findings

A. Quantitative Evaluation – Relationship B

As a degree of departure, this analysis seeks to quantitatively perceive the connection between the Liberian public’s belief in its governmental establishments and the variety of new Ebola instances rising in that nation.

Thus, a regression evaluation of the connection between the quantity of respondents (the principals) trusting a sure governmental establishment (the agent) “So much” and the variety of new Ebola instances supplies the next outcomes.

When analysing the impact the variety of new Ebola instances (right here coded as “new_cases”) has on the quantity of Liberian survey respondents trusting the President “So much”, the next outcomes have been obtained:

  ESTIMATE STANDARD ERROR t-VALUE PR ( > | t | )
INTERCEPT 22.1721 1.1261 19.689 1.22e-12
new_cases -0.0039 0.0011 -3.437 0.0033
Desk 1: The impact of the variety of new Ebola instances on the portion of Liberians trusting their President “So much”

The regression evaluation signifies that with the rise of 1 Ebola case the variety of respondents trusting the President “So much” decreases, on common, by 0.0039 individuals. We will additionally visualize these outcomes graphically in Determine 2.

Determine 2: Liberians’ belief of their President as Ebola instances rise (2011-2018)

This quantitative evaluation will also be executed to check the impact that the variety of new Ebola instances had on the proportion of Liberians responding that they belief their Parliament “So much”. The outcomes of that regression evaluation are as follows.

  ESTIMATE STANDARD ERROR t-VALUE PR ( > | t | )
INTERCEPT 14.1406 1.2664 11.17 5.8e-09***
new_cases -0.0029 0.0013 -2.24 0.0396*
Desk 2: The impact of the variety of new Ebola instances on the portion of Liberians trusting their Parliament “So much”

In line with the regression evaluation, a rise of 1 Ebola case in Liberia in the course of the outbreak decreased, on common, the proportion of Liberians trusting their Parliament “So much” by about 0.0029 individuals. As a graph, this relationship is visualized within the following method.

Determine 3: Liberians’ belief of their Parliament as Ebola instances rise (2011-2018)

The outcomes showcase that in Ebola a decrease proportion of individuals belief their democratic establishments “So much” as these similar establishments have been on the defence attempting to bolster restricted capacities within the battle towards Ebola. The quantitative evaluation doesn’t level to any causal conclusions. This may very well be for a wide range of causes, together with a possible presence of confounding variables. For instance, maybe the decline within the variety of individuals trusting their President or Parliament “So much” is because of one other occasion moreover Ebola. Furthermore, though there’s a clear correlation, the dimensions of the correlation coefficient will not be notably sturdy, thus extra in-depth quantitative evaluation known as for. The outcomes could, nonetheless, predict comparable situations as Liberia presents a paradigmatic case, such because the COVID-19 expertise in Somalia.

B. Qualitative evaluation – Relationships A, C, and F

Building of Liberia as an Incapable State

I argue that the Liberian authorities (the agent) adopted a rhetoric of justification in respect to its actions towards Ebola when addressing Liberians (the principals). The worldwide neighborhood, who adopts the agent place in its relationship with Liberia, created a picture of an incapacitated state.

All through the Ebola disaster, President Sirleaf established a sample of justifying the Liberian authorities’s actions. To start with of a June 2014 speech made amidst rising Ebola instances, Sirleaf states, “The Authorities of Liberia and Companions has carried out this a lot”.[39] In a bid to justify what her authorities has been doing, Sirleaf goes on to record three actions which her authorities has taken to assist curb Ebola.

In a July 2014 assertion, the President spent practically the whole thing of her speech outlining the actions which the federal government had taken towards the Ebola virus. Specifically, the President outlines the creation of the Nationwide Job Pressure, the only authority for responding to the Ebola virus. The President doesn’t define how the Pressure might be funded, and certainly speculations have been later led to that since there was restricted transparency on the Pressure’s functioning, potential corruption ensued.

As a substitute Sirleaf jumps to the impression Ebola had on authorities establishments. Sirleaf states, “Clearly, this dreadful virus has overtasked our public well being amenities and capabilities”.[40] The phrase “clearly” right here works to remove criticism that it was the federal government’s (in)motion towards Ebola and never Ebola itself that overtasked public well being establishments. The usage of the phrase “dreadful” has the same operate, trying to persuade the listener that the federal government understandably been overtasked by a virus so monumental that even the federal government’s greatest efforts couldn’t have helped curb Ebola.

In a September 2014 assertion made because the variety of new instances was now reaching its peak in Liberia, Sirleaf described her authorities’s battle towards Ebola as a battle towards a virus which “not even the world’s specialists knew” was Ebola.[41] By creating a picture of Ebola as an unknown, mysterious virus, Sirleaf works to elicit sympathy from listeners since any failing in answering an unknown illness may very well be comprehensible. Tellingly, Sirleaf states that, “With restricted sources and capability, the federal government responded swiftly and decisively to the outbreak”.[42] The President right here goals to current her authorities’s actions as symmetric to the size of the Ebola catastrophe, reminding us that the actions have been with a handicap, particularly that of an absence of sources and capability. Lastly, on the finish of the speech, Sirleaf reminds listeners that, “We acted throughout the scale of our capability to comprise the size of [sic] an outbreak we couldn’t think about attainable”.[43]

Lastly, in October 2014 on the World Financial institution, Sirleaf positioned Ebola as the explanation for her authorities’s stalling on the successes which Sirleaf claims her authorities achieved vis-à-vis their growth agenda. She additional claims that any faults in her authorities’s response to Ebola should not brought on by her authorities: “With restricted understanding of the illness, low human capability and a gradual worldwide response – the illness rapidly outpaced our capacity to comprise it”.[44] Sirleaf right here additionally signifies that duty for the illness outpacing any authorities containment efforts rests additionally with the inaction of the worldwide neighborhood.

This analysis doesn’t recommend that Sirleaf shouldn’t have justified her actions or that she didn’t make comprehensible statements, however somewhat goals to take a look at what rhetoric Liberia, as a paradigmatic growing state, adopts throughout a PHEIC; it’s considered one of justification.

The worldwide neighborhood, in the meantime, labored to create a picture of Liberia (and West Africa as a complete) as incapable of answering to the disaster. For instance, Barack Obama ignored any state-led makes an attempt at assuaging the disaster and as a substitute merely acknowledged, on the United Nations in September 2014, “In Liberia, in Guinea, in Sierra Leone, public well being methods have collapsed”.[45]

One other instance arises from Physician Margaret Chan March 2015 speech:

Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are among the many poorest nations on this planet. In the beginning of the outbreak, all three had solely not too long ago emerged from years of civil conflict and unrest that left primary well being infrastructures broken or destroyed and created a cohort of younger adults with little or no schooling.[46]

Chan once more known as these three nations the “poorest and least ready nations on Earth” at her November 2nd, 2015 handle on the Princeton-Fung International Discussion board. Chan thus creates a picture of Liberia as an incapacitated state. As a substitute of acknowledging what the federal government had carried out, Chan chooses as a substitute to color, via a Western gaze, a stereotypical image of Liberia as a spot ravaged by conflict, poverty and an absence of schooling. She moreover ignores the specificities of Western African nations, similar to the truth that their GDPs, though amongst the bottom 50 of the world on the time, nonetheless differed (their 2016 GDPs in USD measured seven, 4, and two billion for Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, respectively).[47]

Building of Worldwide Actors as Saviours

I argue that worldwide actors securitized Ebola as a world concern, formulating a public well being disaster in Liberia and its neighbouring states as a menace to worldwide safety. Furthermore, they regarded Liberia as incapable of controlling Ebola, thus denying the Liberian state its company and authority. Lastly, worldwide actors positioned themselves because the saviours of Liberia from its incapacity to manage Ebola and thus saviours of the world, even denying Liberia’s sovereignty by doing so.

In his September 2014 UN speech, Obama denied the Liberian state its company and authority by securitizing Ebola, after which he labored to posit the US as the only, unquestioned saviour of the area and the world from Ebola’s menace. On the very starting of the speech, Obama frames Ebola as “an pressing menace to the individuals of West Africa, but additionally a possible menace to the world”.[48] Obama thus sees Ebola greater than only a well being disaster in West Africa; he sees it as a possible menace to his personal nation thus signalling that Ebola is of significance to him solely as a safety menace. Obama continues to align Ebola as a world safety concern which West Africa is incapable of caring for when he says, “[…] that is additionally greater than a well being disaster[,] [it] is a rising menace to regional and world safety.”[49] It’s at this level that Obama has already constructed West Africa and thus Liberia as a rustic with out authority within the worldwide stage as it’s incapable of controlling a virus which can pose a menace to the world. It was at this level that the worldwide neighborhood stepped in to behave, not whereas the PHEIC was extra localized in West Africa.[50]

Responding to an incapable Liberia, Obama proceeds to place the US as the only, unquestioned chief on the world stage, bringing materials support and experience solely it may possibly present:

Final week, I visited the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention, which is mounting the biggest worldwide response in its historical past.  I stated that the world may depend on America to guide, and that we’ll present the capabilities that solely now we have, and mobilize the world the way in which now we have carried out up to now in crises of comparable magnitude.  And I introduced that, along with the civilian response, the US would set up a army command in Liberia to assist civilian efforts throughout the area.[51]

Obama highlights his personal actions predominantly on this assertion, and people of the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention, a public well being institute in the US. Nowhere does he point out what West African leaders have carried out, insurance policies which they’ve proposed, or support they’ve requested.

Lastly, Obama broadcasts the US’s plan to arrange a army command in Liberia, ignoring questions of respect for Liberian sovereignty and the existence of UNMIL in Liberia already, or any actions they might have taken.

All through her September 2014 UN speech, Liu created a picture which proposed that MSF was the one actor interesting for worldwide assist, denying company, authority, and sovereignty to Liberia. For instance, Liu states, “I’m compelled to reiterate the enchantment I made two weeks in the past. We want you on the bottom”.[52] Liu ignores the existence of constant pleas for worldwide assist from a number of West African leaders and Sirleaf specifically. Furthermore, Liu repeatedly introduced up the actions MSF was endeavor and framed her group because the actor commissioning the best effort within the Ebola response.

As of at present, MSF has despatched greater than 420 tonnes of provides to the affected nations. We now have 2,000 employees on the bottom. We handle greater than 530 beds in 5 completely different Ebola care centres. But we’re overwhelmed.  We’re actually at a loss as to how a single, personal NGO is offering the majority of isolation models and beds.[53]

Liu doesn’t acknowledge the actions of locals or the state, or the truth that MSF had turn into a important responder solely after authorities well being establishments reached breaking level. 

Building of Liberian Residents as Primeval

Lastly, I argue that world leaders created an exotified picture of Liberians (who’re, in relation to them, principals) as “noble savages” and Liberia as being the antithesis of contemporary.

That is maybe most potently manifest within the speeches of Physician Margaret Chan. In her March 2015 speech, Chan started by characterizing Ebola as an “unique pathogen”.[54] Why would Ebola be an unique pathogen? If one is to make use of the dictionary definition of unique, then Ebola, a illness not unknown nor mysterious since 1976, is equated to being “non-native”. Chan right here solidifies the WHO’s gaze as non-African since Ebola wouldn’t be one thing unique if Chan regarded the WHO as a really worldwide group made by and for all nations. As a substitute, she posits Ebola and thus Liberia, as a West African nation, because the WHO’s Different.

Chan continues her problematic characterization of Ebola by pitting Ebola and Liberia in distinction to modernity, urbanism and class. In her November 2015 speech, Chan placess Ebola in disparity to earlier plagues, notably to Extreme Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), which she characterizes as a “trendy plague”, main the listener to imagine that Ebola is in some way not a contemporary plague.[55] Since Chan has equated Ebola to Africa and Ebola as not trendy, she equates Africa as not trendy.

Chan additionally works to create a dichotomy between “subtle” and “city”, particularly the descriptors of the locations the place SARS occurred, and the “poor” and “least ready” locations the place Ebola occurred, when stating:

The Ebola outbreak in West Africa developed inside a really completely different context. Whereas SARS was largely a illness of subtle city settings, Ebola took its heaviest toll on three of the poorest and least ready nations on earth.[56]

She ignores that the subtle and concrete locations additionally had an amazing problem earlier than them when coping with SARS as a result of they too have been poorly ready. Furthermore, Ebola was confronted in all three capital cities of West Africa, particularly Monrovia, Conakry and Freetown, and that being poor and fewer ready, even when true, wouldn’t equate West Africa to being an unsophisticated rural setting.

Moreover, Chan imagines Liberians as “noble savages”, or as harmless and uncivilized people unable to manage emotion with motive. For instance, Chan positions Ebola as a predator preying on harmless Liberians’ cultural practises, when stating:

However above all, the virus exploited West Africa’s deep-seated cultural traditions.[57]

That is additionally seen when Chan mobilizes the language of Ebola as a marauder attacking Liberians’ emotional economic system.

Ebola preyed on one other deep-seated cultural trait: compassion.[58]

Chan argues that when Ebola assaults compassion in care-taking practises, it assaults one thing particularly Liberian. By assuming that compassion is one thing specific to Liberia and West Africa, Chan initiates as soon as once more the method of Othering that she does all through all her speeches to place the WHO’s gaze as divergent to Liberians.

This sample was continued in Chan’s November 2015 handle the place she additional characterised Liberia and its residents as exacerbating the unfold of Ebola via “centuries-old cultural beliefs and traditions” and indicated the Liberians have been in some way caught up to now.

 IV. Dialogue

This analysis was impressed by issues of how public belief operates in a growing setting throughout a PHEIC, how the growing state positions itself throughout such an occasion, and the way worldwide actors function vis-à-vis that state. A crucial overview of the analysis pointed to a physique of data outlining the significance of public belief throughout a PHEIC, its empirical manifestation in Liberia in the course of the Ebola disaster, and the style during which worldwide actors seen the Liberian state and its residents in the course of the Ebola disaster. Work similar to that of Blair, Morse, and Tsai (2016) establishes that residents didn’t comply with anti-transmission practises issued by the federal government, even after they believed in them, due to their indication that they didn’t belief the federal government sufficient. Furthermore, analysis similar to that of Monson (2017) argues that:

The US information media tapped into Individuals’ worry and conceptualization of Ebola as “different”, “scary”, and “African”, which led to the othering of Africa, Africans, and people coming back from Africa.[59]

Nevertheless, the analysis physique stays considerably repetitive and scant given the under-studied nature of the area and the truth that occasions have been comparatively current. The literature, furthermore, doesn’t create a wider conceptual picture of the very specific developmental setting and occasions which occurred and doesn’t query the altering roles of the residents, the state and worldwide actors as principals and brokers.

This analysis faucets into the out there knowledge to supply a snapshot of what relationships between the three actors regarded like earlier than, throughout, and after Ebola. The information and its evaluation may have taken many different kinds. For instance, face-to-face interviews would offer a extra strong and detailed dataset for evaluation. An interview with David Nabarro, as an example, may present extra data on his views on Liberians, as the info right here didn’t present, surprisingly so, conclusive findings. Nevertheless, I select to analyse knowledge not analysed earlier than which lends itself elegantly to quantitative and discourse evaluation, offering a convincing image. Sensible issues additionally play a task; contacting actors throughout a pandemic and notably these in Liberia is a tough activity with the sources supplied. Past the info, strategies of approaching it is also improved. Firstly, analysis with better time, cash and area limits would do nicely to analyse how the roles of principals and brokers change throughout a PHEIC or how the roles of 1 actor, such because the citizenry, change. Secondly, one other method can be to conduct an in-depth comparative case examine the place the expertise of Ebola in Liberia may very well be in comparison with the expertise of COVID-19 in one other growing and even developed nation. For instance, the same outlook may very well be utilized to neighbouring Sierra Leone and Guinea to analyse potential similarities and/or variations. Lastly, a doubtlessly bountiful space of analysis can be to supply a gender evaluation of Liberia and/or different nations’ expertise of PHEICs. Most nurses caring for Liberian Ebola sufferers have been girls, and of the 5 (inter)nationwide leaders whose speeches are right here analysed, three are girls. A gendered evaluation would enormously serve the development of a classy snapshot.

Why is it essential to color an image of the relations between these three several types of actors throughout Ebola in any case? I supply three important causes, every relating to 1 sort of actor and unmistakably positioning them throughout the context of a PHEIC. Firstly, it’s crucial to debate what position growing states have in stopping and answering to crises in public well being. As threats to public well being more and more deny the existence of artificial borders in a globalized world, growing states are left with out the capability to forestall and management outbreaks which threaten complete areas and even the world. But, because the expertise of Ebola reveals, it was the nation-state which was at first in responding to Ebola. Lastly, the position of the worldwide neighborhood in responding to PHEICs in growing contexts should be critically re-examined. Many questions right here come up that want answering: whose pursuits do worldwide actors signify, how do they place themselves vis-à-vis growing states’ leaders and residents, and do their actions work in practise or falter? For instance, the expertise of Ebola in Liberia reveals {that a} lack of cultural sensitivity on the a part of worldwide actors and their messages created a bent to disregard anti-transmission practises. Secondly, issues of the position native communities have throughout PHEICs, whether or not they be the BAME neighborhood within the UK or residents of Monrovia’s slums, are more and more pertinent. The expertise of Ebola in Liberia dictates that local people engagement is pivotal in reversing transmission tendencies and implementing a complete host of constructive public well being insurance policies, such because the tailoring of applications to native circumstances for elevated effectiveness.

Lastly, this analysis hopes to encourage insurance policies implementing its insights into practise. Potential insurance policies embrace additional enhancing the resilience and adaptableness of growing states’ well being methods and doing this particularly on the native stage the place residents and native leaders are greatest adept at responding with data of native cultural norms throughout PHEICs. This could imply way more shut contact to native leaders, or implementation of regional hubs, as detailed by Sherif and Maina (2013), however for the adaption of well being and never safety coverage. One other potential coverage space would spring from a crucial questioning of the WHO’s functioning. It is a notably salient coverage area at present because the US, one of many WHO’s largest donors, leaves that organisation. For the WHO to nonetheless be related, it might want to assess its personal principal-agent relations with every nation, particularly these with struggling well being methods.

V. Conclusion

This analysis posits that because the variety of new Ebola instances rises, public belief declines whereas additionally showcasing the truth that the Liberian state sought to justify its actions while worldwide actors noticed themselves as saviours and Liberians and Ebola-ridden Liberia as backwards.

I wish to end off by offering area for the scantily out there voice of Liberian Ebola survivors whereas showcasing native actions. Following the perception that Ebola can exist in semen for as much as 18 months, efforts such because the Males’s Well being Screening Program supply sexual and psychological well being assist to males who’ve had Ebola. Members spotlight the significance of locals administering applications which regard delicate issues associated to intercourse and Ebola. Via the programme, hope is born in Liberian survivors who’ve created the motto: I might be profitable. I might be beneficial. I’ll make an impression.[60]

Appendices

Appendix 1: R Code

## Liberians’ Belief of their President earlier than, throughout, and after Ebola ##

names(Test_4)[names(Test_4) == “new cases”] <- “new_cases”

names(Test_4)[names(Test_4) == “trust in president”] <- “trust_in_president”

lmTest4 = lm(trust_in_president~new_cases, knowledge = Test_4)

abstract(lmTest4)

x <- Test_4$new_cases

y <- Test_4$trust_in_president

plot(x, y, important = “Liberians’ belief of their President as Ebola instances rise (2011-2018)”,

            xlab = “New Ebola Circumstances in Liberia”, ylab = “Liberians’ belief of their President”)

mannequin <- loess(y ~ x , Test_4)

new.Test_4 <- knowledge.body(x, y)

new.Test_4$match <- predict(mannequin, new.Test_4)

with(x, y, plot(x, y, ylim=c(0,5)))

with(new.Test_4, strains(x, match))

## Liberians’ Belief of their Parliament earlier than, throughout, and after Ebola ##

names(Cases_Parl_Trust_Excel)[names(Cases_Parl_Trust_Excel) == “new_cases”] <- “new_cases”

names(Cases_Parl_Trust_Excel)[names(Cases_Parl_Trust_Excel) == “trust_parl”] <- “trust_parl”

lm_Test_Parl = lm(trust_parl~new_cases, knowledge = Cases_Parl_Trust_Excel)

abstract(lm_Test_Parl)

x <- Cases_Parl_Trust_Excel$new_cases

y <- Cases_Parl_Trust_Excel$trust_parl

plot(x, y, important = “Liberians’ belief of their Parliament as Ebola instances rise (2011-2018)”,

            xlab = “New Ebola Circumstances in Liberia”, ylab = “Liberians’ belief of their Parliament”)

mannequin <- loess(y ~ x , Cases_Parl_Trust_Excel)

new.Cases_Parl_Trust_Excel <- knowledge.body(x, y)

new.Cases_Parl_Trust_Excel$match <- predict(mannequin, new.Cases_Parl_Trust_Excel)

with(x, y, plot(x, y, ylim=c(0,5)))

with(new.Cases_Parl_Trust_Excel, strains(x, match))

Appendix 2: Time sequence survey knowledge showcasing Liberians’ belief of their President as supplied on Afrobarometer

Appendix 3: Time sequence survey knowledge showcasing Liberians’ belief of their President as supplied on Afrobarometer

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Podder, Sukanya. “Bridging the ‘Conceptual–Contextual’ Divide: Safety Sector Reform in Liberia and UNMIL Transition.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 7, no. 3 (September 1, 2013): 353–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/17502977.2013.770242.

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“Report for Chosen International locations and Topics,” July 1, 2020. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2015/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=43&pr.y=8&sy=2013&ey=2020&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=668%2C724%2C656&s=NGDPD&grp=0&a=.

Richardson Oakes, Anne. “Judicial Sources and the Public Belief Doctrine: A Highly effective Software of Environmental Safety?” Transnational Environmental Regulation 7, no. 3 (September 17, 2018): 469–89. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2047102518000213.

Roemer-Mahler, Anne, and Simon Rushton. “Introduction: Ebola and Worldwide Relations.” Third World Quarterly 37, no. 3 (March 3, 2016): 373–79. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2015.1118343.

Sabuni, Louis Paluku. “Dilemma With the Native Notion of Causes of Diseases in Central Africa: Muted Idea however Prevalent in On a regular basis Life.” Qualitative Well being Analysis 17, no. 9 (November 1, 2007): 1280–91. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732307307864.

Sarah Monson. “Ebola as African: American Media Discourses of Panic and Otherization.” Africa Immediately 63, no. 3 (April 1, 2017): 3. https://doi.org/10.2979/africatoday.63.3.02.

Scott, Vera, Sarah Crawford-Browne, and David Sanders. “Critiquing the Response to the Ebola Epidemic via a Major Well being Care Strategy.” BMC Public Well being 16, no. 1 (Could 17, 2016): 410. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3071-4.

Sherif, and Maina. “Enhancing Safety and Justice in Liberia.” ACCORD (weblog), March 1, 2013. https://www.accord.org.za/publication/enhancing-security-and-justice-in-liberia/.

Shorten, Allison, and Joanna Smith. “Blended Strategies Analysis: Increasing the Proof Base.” Proof Primarily based Nursing 20, no. 3 (July 26, 2017): 74–75. https://doi.org/10.1136/eb-2017-102699.

Siddique, Haroon, and Sarah Marsh. “Inquiry Introduced into Disproportionate Affect of Coronavirus on BAME Communities.” The Guardian, April 16, 2020, sec. World information. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/16/inquiry-disproportionate-impact-coronavirus-bame.

Siisiainen, and Martti. “(PDF) Two Ideas of Social Capital: Bourdieu vs. Putnam.” ResearchGate, January 1, 2000. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/200031251_Two_Concepts_of_Social_Capital_Bourdieu_vs_Putnam.

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———. “Nationwide Assertion by Madam Ellen Johnson Sirleaf President of the Republic of Liberia on the Ebola Virus,” June 8, 2014. https://www.emansion.gov.lr/doc/Nationwide%20Statement%20on%20the%20Ebola%20virus%20by%20the%20President%20of%20the%20%20Republic%20of%20Liberia,%20Madam%20Ellen%20Johnson%20Sirleaf(1).pdf.

———. “Nationwide Assertion by Madam Ellen Johnson Sirleaf President of the Republic of Liberia on the Ebola Virus,” September 9, 2014. https://www.emansion.gov.lr/doc/WorldBank_Statement.pdf.

———. “Particular Assertion by Ellen Johson Sirleaf On Further Measures within the Struggle towards the Ebola Viral Illness,” July 30, 2014. https://www.emansion.gov.lr/doc/Special_State_Delivered_July%2030.pdf.

———. “Assertion by Her Excellency President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf on the Replace of the Ebola Disaster,” September 17, 2014. https://www.emansion.gov.lr/doc/Nation_Address-17092014.pdf.

Southall, Hannah Grace, Sarah E. DeYoung, and Curt Andrew Harris. “Lack of Cultural Competency in Worldwide Help Responses: The Ebola Outbreak in Liberia.” Frontiers in Public Well being 5 (January 31, 2017). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00005.

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Tejpar, Ali, and Steven J. Hoffman. “Canada’s Violation of Worldwide Regulation in the course of the 2014–16 Ebola Outbreak.” Canadian Yearbook of Worldwide Regulation/Annuaire Canadien de Droit Worldwide 54 (October 2, 2017): 366–83. https://doi.org/10.1017/cyl.2017.18.

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Trčková, Dita. “Representations of Ebola and Its Victims in Liberal American Newspapers.” Subjects in Linguistics 16, no. 1 (December 1, 2015): 29–41. https://doi.org/10.2478/topling-2015-0009.

Tsai, Lily L., Benjamin S. Morse, and Robert A. Blair. “Constructing Credibility and Cooperation in Low-Belief Settings: Persuasion and Supply Accountability in Liberia Through the 2014–2015 Ebola Disaster.” Comparative Political Research 53, no. 10–11 (September 1, 2020): 1582–1618. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414019897698.

Van de Walle, Steven, and Geert Bouckaert. “Public Service Efficiency and Belief in Authorities: The Downside of Causality.” Worldwide Journal of Public Administration 26, no. 8–9 (February 7, 2007): 891–913. https://doi.org/10.1081/PAD-120019352.

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Notes

[1] Siddique, Haroon, and Sarah Marsh. “Inquiry Introduced into Disproportionate Affect of Coronavirus on BAME Communities.” The Guardian, April 16, 2020, sec. World information. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/16/inquiry-disproportionate-impact-coronavirus-bame.

[2] I take the Western world to typically be comprised of North American and European (largely Western European) developed nations.

[3] Ali, Harris, Barlu Dumbuya, Michaela Hynie, Pablo Idahosa, Roger Keil, and Patricia Perkins. “The Social and Political Dimensions of the Ebola Response: International Inequality, Local weather Change, and Infectious Illness.” In Local weather Change and Well being, edited by Walter Leal Filho, Ulisses M. Azeiteiro, and Fátima Alves, 151–69. Web page 161. Local weather Change Administration. Cham: Springer Worldwide Publishing, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24660-4_10.

[4] All through this Dissertation, the 2011 to 2018 interval is used for the reason that survey knowledge is from that interval. Nevertheless, the Ebola disaster in Liberia ran from 2014 to 2016.

[5] Hawkins, Darren G., ed. Delegation and Company in Worldwide Organizations. Political Economic system of Establishments and Selections. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge College Press, 2006. Page 7. https://books.google.co.uk/books/about/Delegation_and_Agency_in_International_O.html?id=KTIbxACnMgYC&printsec=frontcover&source=kp_read_button&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false.

[6] Editors at Authorized Data Institute. “Public Belief Doctrine.” LII / Authorized Data Institute, NA. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/public_trust_doctrine.

[7]“PUBLIC TRUST | That means within the Cambridge English Dictionary,” NA. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/public-trust.

[8] Van de Walle, Steven, and Geert Bouckaert. “Public Service Efficiency and Belief in Authorities: The Downside of Causality.” Worldwide Journal of Public Administration 26, no. 8–9 (February 7, 2007): 891–913 (Web page 909). https://doi.org/10.1081/PAD-120019352.

[9] Siisiainen, and Martti. “(PDF) Two Ideas of Social Capital: Bourdieu vs. Putnam.” ResearchGate, January 1, 2000. Page 1. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/200031251_Two_Concepts_of_Social_Capital_Bourdieu_vs_Putnam.

[10]Gambetta, Diego. Belief: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations. Blackwell, 1988. https://philpapers.org/rec/GAMTMA.

[11] Sherif, and Maina. “Enhancing Safety and Justice in Liberia.” ACCORD (weblog), March 1, 2013. Page 8. https://www.accord.org.za/publication/enhancing-security-and-justice-in-liberia/.

[12] Podder, Sukanya. “Bridging the ‘Conceptual–Contextual’ Divide: Safety Sector Reform in Liberia and UNMIL Transition.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 7, no. 3 (September 1, 2013): 353–80 (Web page 374). https://doi.org/10.1080/17502977.2013.770242.

[13] Karim, Sabrina. “Restoring Confidence in Put up-Battle Safety Sectors: Survey Proof from Liberia on Feminine Ratio Balancing Reforms.” British Journal of Political Science 49, no. 3 (June 28, 2017): 799–821 (Web page 799). https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123417000035.

[14] Beekman, Gonne, Erwin Bulte, and Eleonora Nillesen. “Corruption, Investments and Contributions to Public Items: Experimental Proof from Rural Liberia.” Journal of Public Economics 115 (July 1, 2014): 37–47 (Web page 44). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2014.04.004.

[15] Barker, Kathryn M, Emilia J Ling, Mosoka Fallah, Brian VanDeBogert, Yvonne Kodl, Rose Jallah Macauley, Okay Viswanath, and Margaret E Kruk. “Group Engagement for Well being System Resilience: Proof from Liberia’s Ebola Epidemic.” Well being Coverage and Planning 35, no. 4 (Could 1, 2020): 416–23 (Web page 416). https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czz174.

[16] Tsai, Lily L., Benjamin S. Morse, and Robert A. Blair. “Constructing Credibility and Cooperation in Low-Belief Settings: Persuasion and Supply Accountability in Liberia Through the 2014–2015 Ebola Disaster.” Comparative Political Research 53, no. 10–11 (September 1, 2020): 1582–1618 (Web page 1582). https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414019897698.

[17] Vinck, Patrick, Phuong N Pham, Kenedy Okay Bindu, Juliet Bedford, and Eric J Nilles. “Institutional Belief and Misinformation within the Response to the 2018–19 Ebola Outbreak in North Kivu, DR Congo: A Inhabitants-Primarily based Survey.” The Lancet Infectious Illnesses 19, no. 5 (March 27, 2019): 529–36 (Web page 529). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30063-5.

[18] Elston, J.W.T., C. Cartwright, P. Ndumbi, and J. Wright. “The Well being Affect of the 2014–15 Ebola Outbreak.” Public Well being 143 (February 1, 2017): 60–70 (Web page 60). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2016.10.020.

[19] Hofman, Michiel, and Sokhieng Au, eds. The Politics of Worry: Médecins sans Frontières and the West African Ebola Epidemic. New York, NY, United States of America: Oxford College Press, 2017. 101-119. https://edisciplinas.usp.br/pluginfile.php/4280019/mod_resource/content/1/Sokhieng%20Au%2C%20Michiel%20Hofman-The%20politics%20of%20fear%20_%20M%C3%A9decins%20sans%20fronti%C3%A8res%20and%20the%20West%20A.pdf.

[20] Abramowitz, Sharon, Sarah Lindley McKune, Mosoka Fallah, Josephine Monger, Kodjo Tehoungue, and Patricia A. Omidian. “The Reverse of Denial: Social Studying on the Onset of the Ebola Emergency in Liberia.” Journal of Well being Communication 22, no. sup1 (March 2017): 59–65 (Web page 64). https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2016.1209599.

[21] Kucharski, A, and P Piot. “Containing Ebola Virus An infection in West Africa.” Eurosurveillance 19, no. 36 (September 11, 2014): 20899. Web page 2. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES2014.19.36.20899.

[22] Ibid

[23] Woldemariam, Yohannes, and Lionel Di Giacomo. “Ebola Epidemic.” Air &amp; Area Energy Journal – Africa and Francophonie 7, no. 1 (March 22, 2016): 54–73. https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&issn=1931728X&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA455186429&sid=googleScholar&linkaccess=abs.

[24] Roemer-Mahler, Anne, and Simon Rushton. “Introduction: Ebola and Worldwide Relations.” Third World Quarterly 37, no. 3 (March 3, 2016): 373–79 (Web page 376). https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2015.1118343.

[25] Southall, Hannah Grace, Sarah E. DeYoung, and Curt Andrew Harris. “Lack of Cultural Competency in Worldwide Help Responses: The Ebola Outbreak in Liberia.” Frontiers in Public Well being 5 (January 31, 2017). Web page 1. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00005.

[26] Sarah Monson. “Ebola as African: American Media Discourses of Panic and Otherization.” Africa Immediately 63, no. 3 (April 1, 2017): 3. Page1. https://doi.org/10.2979/africatoday.63.3.02.

[27] Ali et al. (2016), Web page 161

[28] Kingsbury, Grace. “(PDF) To What Extent Was the Western Dealing with of the Ebola Disaster an Instance of Neo- Imperialism?” ResearchGate. Accessed August 27, 2020. Page 4. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.28397.54242.

[29] Trčková, Dita. “Representations of Ebola and Its Victims in Liberal American Newspapers.” Subjects in Linguistics 16, no. 1 (December 1, 2015): 29–41 (web page 29). https://doi.org/10.2478/topling-2015-0009.

[30] Gerring, John. Case Research Analysis: Ideas and Practices. Second version. Methods for Social Inquiry. Cambridge, United Kingdom New York, NY: Cambridge College Press, 2017. https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=CbetAQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=Case+study+research:+principles+and+practices+gerring&ots=kbG6NNMUzH&sig=_-e7Y7jJmPaAFW8lMqEDHGEXpaQ#v=onepage&q=Case%20study%20research%3A%20principles%20and%20practices%20gerring&f=false.

[31] Flyvbjerg, Bent. “5 Misunderstandings About Case-Research Analysis.” Qualitative Inquiry 12, no. 2 (April 1, 2006): 219–45. Page 15. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800405284363.

[32]Shorten, Allison, and Joanna Smith. “Blended Strategies Analysis: Increasing the Proof Base.” Proof Primarily based Nursing 20, no. 3 (July 26, 2017): 74–75. Page 74. https://doi.org/10.1136/eb-2017-102699.

[33] Dijk, Teun A. van. “Ideas of Essential Discourse Evaluation.” Discourse & Society 4, no. 2 (April 1, 1993): 249–83 (Web page 257). https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926593004002006.

[34] Gerring (2006), Web page 7

[35] Foucault. The Order of Discourse, 1970. Page 53. https://www.kit.ntnu.no/sites/www.kit.ntnu.no/files/Foucault_The%20Order%20of%20Discourse.pdf.

[36] Van Dijk (1993), Web page 249

[37] Ibid, Pages 254-255

[38] Mama, Amina. “Is It Moral to Research Africa? Preliminary Ideas on Scholarship and Freedom.” African Research Evaluate 50, no. 1 (April 1, 2007): 1–26 (Web page 23). https://doi.org/10.2307/20065338.

[39] Sirleaf. “Nationwide Assertion by Madam Ellen Johnson Sirleaf President of the Republic of Liberia on the Ebola Virus,” June 8, 2014. Page 2. https://www.emansion.gov.lr/doc/Nationwide%20Statement%20on%20the%20Ebola%20virus%20by%20the%20President%20of%20the%20%20Republic%20of%20Liberia,%20Madam%20Ellen%20Johnson%20Sirleaf(1).pdf.

[40] Sirleaf. “Particular Assertion by Ellen Johson Sirleaf On Further Measures within the Struggle towards the Ebola Viral Illness,” July 30, 2014. Page 1. https://www.emansion.gov.lr/doc/Special_State_Delivered_July%2030.pdf.

[41] Sirleaf. “Nationwide Assertion by Madam Ellen Johnson Sirleaf President of the Republic of Liberia on the Ebola Virus,” September 9, 2014. Page 1. https://www.emansion.gov.lr/doc/WorldBank_Statement.pdf.

[42] Sirleaf. “Nationwide Assertion by Madam Ellen Johnson Sirleaf President of the Republic of Liberia on the Ebola Virus,” September 9, 2014. Page 2. https://www.emansion.gov.lr/doc/WorldBank_Statement.pdf.

[43] Ibid

[44] Sirleaf. “Assertion by Her Excellency President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf on the Replace of the Ebola Disaster,” September 17, 2014. Page 2. https://www.emansion.gov.lr/doc/Nation_Address-17092014.pdf.

[45] Obama, Barack. “Remarks by President Obama at U.N. Assembly on Ebola.” whitehouse.gov, September 25, 2014. Page 1. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/25/remarks-president-obama-un-meeting-ebola.

[46] Chan. “WHO | From Disaster to Sustainable Growth: Classes from the Ebola Outbreak.” WHO. World Well being Group, March 10, 2015. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/2015/ebola-lessons-lecture/en/.

[47] “Report for Chosen International locations and Topics,” July 1, 2020. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2015/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=43&pr.y=8&sy=2013&ey=2020&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=668%2C724%2C656&s=NGDPD&grp=0&a=.

[48]Obama, Barack. “Remarks by President Obama at U.N. Assembly on Ebola.” whitehouse.gov, September 25, 2014. Web page 1. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/25/remarks-president-obama-un-meeting-ebola.

[49] Ibid

[50] Roemer-Mahler and Rushton (2016).

[51] Ibid

[52] Liu, Joanne. “Ebola UN Speech: ‘The Response Stays Completely, and Lethally, Insufficient,’” September 16, 2014. https://www.msf.org.uk/article/ebola-un-speech-response-remains-totally-and-lethally-inadequate.

[53] Ibid

[54]Chan. “WHO | From Disaster to Sustainable Growth: Classes from the Ebola Outbreak.” WHO. World Well being Group, March 10, 2015. Page 1. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/2015/ebola-lessons-lecture/en/.

[55] Ibid

[56] Chan. “WHO | WHO Director-Basic Addresses Princeton – Fung International Discussion board on Classes Discovered from the Ebola Disaster.” WHO. World Well being Group, November 2, 2015. Page 2. http://www.who.int/dg/speeches/2015/princeton-ebola-lessons/en/.

[57] Chan. “WHO | From Disaster to Sustainable Growth: Classes from the Ebola Outbreak.” WHO. World Well being Group, March 10, 2015. Web page 4. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/2015/ebola-lessons-lecture/en/.

[58] Ibid

[59] Monson (2017), Web page 1

[60] “Liberian Ebola Survivor Program Gives Training, Counseling, and Hope | Division of International Well being Safety | International Well being | CDC,” July 12, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/healthprotection/stories/liberia-survivor-program.html.


Written at: College Faculty London
Written for: Dr. Ali Naghieh (Supervisor)
Date written: September 2020

Additional Studying on E-Worldwide Relations

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